## Background

I am making a function that receives a **positive number** and then rounds the number to the closest integer bellow it.

I have been using `Math.floor`

, but recently I discovered `Math.trunc`

.

I am aware that both will return the same value, given a positive number, and that they work in completely different ways. I am interested in exploring this behavior.

## Questions

- Which one is faster ?
- Which one should I use?

## Answer

Actually, there is much more alternative ways to remove the decimals from a number. But it’s a tradeoff of readability and speed.

Choosing the right one depends on what you need. If you just need to just **remove decimals**, always use `trunc()`

or bitwise operators.

The `floor()`

, `ceil()`

and `round()`

are conceptually very different from `trunc()`

.

# Math library

You already know these. Always use them in a standard, non-critical code.

var v = 3.14; [Math.trunc(v), Math.round(v), Math.floor(v), Math.ceil(v)] // prints results

for different input values you get these results

v t r f c 3.87 : [ 3, 4, 3, 4] 3.14 : [ 3, 3, 3, 4] -3.14 : [-3, -3, -4, -3] -3.87 : [-3, -4, -4, -3]

`Math.trunc()`

**cuts away** *(truncates)* the decimal places.

`Math.round()`

**rounds** towards **closest** integer number.

`Math.floor()`

**rounds** towards closest **lower** integer number. `3.5 -> 3`

`-3.5 -> -4`

`Math.ceil()`

**rounds** towards closest **higher** integer number. `3.5 -> 4`

`-3.5 -> -3`

But this is more fun 🙂

# Binary operations and bitwise operators

If you look at them in the code, it might not be apparent from the first glance what they do, so *don’t* use them in normal code. Though in some cases, they might be useful. For example calculating coordinates in a `<canvas/>`

. They are much faster, but come with limitations.

## Conceptually, they work this way:

- The operands are
**converted to 32-bit signed integers**and thus lose all decimal fractions.

ATTENTION:

Numbers with more than 32 bits get their most significant (leftmost) bits discarded and the leftmost bit becomes the new sign bit.[ 0b011100110111110100000000000000110000000000001, // 15872588537857 ~~0b011100110111110100000000000000110000000000001, // -1610588159 ~~0b10100000000000000110000000000001, // -1610588159 ]

### Bitwise logical operators

- Each bit in the first operand is paired with the corresponding bit in the second operand. (First bit to first bit, second bit to second bit, and so on.)
- The operator is applied to each pair of bits, and the result is constructed bitwise.

### Bitwise shift operators

- These operators take a
`value`

to be shifted and a`number`

of bit positions to shift the`value`

by.

## truncating

However, when truncating, we always use a `0`

, zero, a `false`

as a second operand, that doesn’t do anything to the original value, except for converting to integer, in these cases:

`~`

NOT `~~v`

`|`

OR `v | 0`

`<<`

Left shift `v << 0`

`>>`

Signed right shift `v >> 0`

`>>>`

Zero-fill right shift `v >>> 0`

var v = 3.78; [ ~~v , v | 0 , v << 0 , v >> 0 , v >>> 0 ] // prints these results 3.78 : [ 3, 3, 3, 3, 3] 3.14 : [ 3, 3, 3, 3, 3] -3.74 : [-3, -3, -3, -3, 4294967293] -3.14 : [-3, -3, -3, -3, 4294967293]