useState set method not reflecting change immediately

Tags: , ,



I am trying to learn hooks and the useState method has made me confused. I am assigning an initial value to a state in the form of an array. The set method in useState is not working for me even with spread(...) or without spread operator. I have made an API on another PC that I am calling and fetching the data which I want to set into the state.

Here is my code:

import React, { useState, useEffect } from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";

const StateSelector = () => {
  const initialValue = [
    {
      category: "",
      photo: "",
      description: "",
      id: 0,
      name: "",
      rating: 0
    }
  ];

  const [movies, setMovies] = useState(initialValue);

  useEffect(() => {
    (async function() {
      try {
        //const response = await fetch(
        //`http://192.168.1.164:5000/movies/display`
        //);
        //const json = await response.json();
        //const result = json.data.result;
        const result = [
          {
            category: "cat1",
            description: "desc1",
            id: "1546514491119",
            name: "randomname2",
            photo: null,
            rating: "3"
          },
          {
            category: "cat2",
            description: "desc1",
            id: "1546837819818",
            name: "randomname1",
            rating: "5"
          }
        ];
        console.log(result);
        setMovies(result);
        console.log(movies);
      } catch (e) {
        console.error(e);
      }
    })();
  }, []);

  return <p>hello</p>;
};

const rootElement = document.getElementById("root");
ReactDOM.render(<StateSelector />, rootElement);

The setMovies(result) as well as setMovies(...result) is not working. Could use some help here.

I expect the result variable to be pushed into the movies array.

Answer

Much like setState in Class components created by extending React.Component or React.PureComponent, the state update using the updater provided by useState hook is also asynchronous, and will not be reflected immediately.

Also, the main issue here is not just the asynchronous nature but the fact that state values are used by functions based on their current closures, and state updates will reflect in the next re-render by which the existing closures are not affected, but new ones are created. Now in the current state, the values within hooks are obtained by existing closures, and when a re-render happens, the closures are updated based on whether the function is recreated again or not.

Even if you add a setTimeout the function, though the timeout will run after some time by which the re-render would have happened, the setTimout will still use the value from its previous closure and not the updated one.

setMovies(result);
console.log(movies) // movies here will not be updated

If you want to perform an action on state update, you need to use the useEffect hook, much like using componentDidUpdate in class components since the setter returned by useState doesn’t have a callback pattern

useEffect(() => {
    // action on update of movies
}, [movies]);

As far as the syntax to update state is concerned, setMovies(result) will replace the previous movies value in the state with those available from the async request.

However, if you want to merge the response with the previously existing values, you must use the callback syntax of state updation along with the correct use of spread syntax like

setMovies(prevMovies => ([...prevMovies, ...result]));


Source: stackoverflow